Chickering and Gamson - Seven Principles
The seven principles of good practices in education were created in
1987. It was however, only in 1991, that Arthur Chickering and Zelda
Gamson, published a book entitled Applying the Seven Principles for
Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The principles exposed in
this book are the fruit of a study supported by The American Association
for Higher Education, The Education Commission of States, and The Johnson
Foundation. The seven principles have not only influenced practices
and theories in undergraduate education, but one also finds their resonance
in the field of learning technologies (Table 2).
- Good practice encourages student - faculty contact
- Good practice encourages cooperation among students
- Good practice encourages active learning
- Good practice gives prompt feedback
- Good practice encourages time on task
- Good practice communicates high expectations
- Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning
Seven principles and seven examples
Table 2 Seven principles and seven examples
Seven technological examples
|1. Encouraging student-faculty contact
among the students and professors can be increased thanks to the
E-mail, the videoconference, the Visio conference, IP telephone,
can be now synchronous
between student and faculty.
|2. Encouraging cooperation among students
||Cooperation among students can be favored by information
and communication technologies (ICT). This cooperation can sometimes
express itself by virtual teams. Teamwork can be done at a distance
without the participants seeing each other.
|3. Encouraging active learning
||Dynamic learning of a subject can be made
by employing computer tools, simulating complex problems or simply
browsing through databases or making use of search engines.
|4. Giving prompt feedback
||E-mail and other communication tools can provide rapid
feedback. Intelligent authoring agents can also help in following
the progress of a student. They offer the opportunity of identifying
the strengths and weaknesses of a learner in a particular domain.
|5. Emphasizing time on task
||Many consider that ICT accelerate learning process
and encourages effective use of time.
|6. Communicating high expectations
||Creating a website, working with students from other
countries through virtual teams; displaying assignments through
a site can be sources of motivation and excellence.
|7. Respecting diverse talents and ways of learning
||Many believe that learning technologies allow students
to work at their own pace. Furthermore, these technologies can now
supply visual, textual, hearing and tactile supports.